Natural ruby buying & treatment guide – How to buy and tell the difference between natural unheated, heated, new glass filled ruby treatment?

Video explanation between unheated ruby vs lead glass-filled ruby (composite ruby):

Why is Learning Ruby Treatment Important?

Distinguishing between natural no treatment rubies to heated or new treatment rubies is a very important skill every ruby gemstone buyer should learn before venturing out to buy one.

The price between each level of treatment can range from.  Exceptionally expensive US$10,000 per carat for unheated natural rubies.  To US$1 per carat for new treatment lead-glass filled rubies which has now flooded the market today.  These are especially true with Thai and many other dealers on eBay.

Understanding what to look for and checking the authenticity of the certificate.  Can make a difference between buying a ruby which you got a great deal for.  And buying a gemstone that you got scammed as the seller did not inform you what type of treatment the stones is.

I hope this guide will provide you a basic understanding of how to distinguish the different type of treatments.

I do want to emphasize that even though you have read this guide completely and understood the basics.  It does take years of experience of seeing rubies. To truly understand and distinguish the different treatments.

If there is any doubt about your purchase. “Even that slight 1% chance.” It is always best to double-check the stone from a reliable gemstone laboratory or trustworthy gem dealer.

Ruby Treatment Guide –  Unheated, Untreated, Completely Natural Ruby

Natural Ruby that are NOT heated or treated are quite easy to distinguish. If they have natural inclusions inside that you can see through a microscope and normal 10 times (10x) magnification loupe.

Natural Inclusions Include the Following:

  • Intact, fine, needle-like Silk (rutile needles) intersecting at 60 degrees angle. In the same plane or other fine needles at near right angles.
  • Boehmite needles
  • Fingerprint inclusions
  • Angular, straight or hexagonal growth zoning or banding
  • Straight, angular and possible color zoning and color banding
  • Unaltered mineral inclusions, clear or opaque color, that might show angular faces
  • Intact two-phase inclusions

Below are some sample images of rubies with these characteristics. Please note that it does take some experience. To check and verify if the ruby you are looking at is completely natural or not.

However, if you do have a great pair of eyes and can see these inclusions. And NONE of the other inclusions described from the guide below.

You can be sure that the ruby you have in hand is natural, unheated and untreated, the rarest of all rubies!

Unheated Ruby - Intact and unaltered Calcite Crystals
Intact and unaltered Calcite Crystals. Photo courtesy from © Paolo Cerruti
Unheated Ruby - Natural Apatite Crystals
Natural Apatite Crystals. Photo courtesy of Photo © Richard W. Hughes
Ruby Treatment Image - Unheated Ruby - Another intact and unaltered calcite crystal and hexagonal color zoning seen within
Another intact and unaltered calcite crystal and hexagonal color zoning seen within. Photo courtesy of Photo © Richard W. Hughes
Ruby Treatment Image - Unheated Ruby - Intact Silk inclusions
Intact Silk inclusions. Photo courtesy of Photo © Richard W. Hughes

Ruby Treatment Guide – Heated Rubies

Almost all rubies (95%) of rubies today are heat-treated. There are different types and level of heat treatment in rubies. That can be classified from very slight to quite extreme.

Distinguishing these levels of treatment can also affect the price of ruby dramatically. Heat treatment is used to either develop or intensify a ruby’s natural color. Heat treatment can also improve the clarity of a ruby by removing or reducing inclusions and making them less visible.

The way this works is quite technical. And I will not be explaining it in this guide. But you get an idea of why people heat treats rubies.

Ways of Detecting “Normal Heat” Treatment Rubies is by Seeing The Following Inclusions: 

  • Discoid fractures with tension halos. It looks like disk-like fractures with lace-like outer healing rims. This is caused by expansion of natural crystal inclusions.
  • Burned or altered mineral inclusions. With rounded, often whitish, “cotton” like or snowball” appearances
  • Broken silk or partially “reabsorbed” rutile needles
  • Ruptured two-phase inclusions and negative crystals
  • Sintered surface areas, especially around the girdle

Prices for normal or slightly heated rubies are still not cheap.  Good ones can still cost upward of US$5,000 per carat.

However, before paying these high prices. PLEASE make sure the ruby which you are purchasing. Has not been subjected to newer or higher step treatments which is shown below.

This is because the price for higher treatment rubies can drop dramatically.

A good way to double-check if the ruby is what is stated. Is by asking your jeweler or gemstone wholesaler.  For a reliable certificate with the stone.

On a GRS certificate or GemResearch Swisslab. One of the reliable color gemstones certificate laboratories in the market. It will state the ruby is only subject to H treatment or H (a) is also acceptable.

If its written H(b) or below then you will know that the ruby has been subject to newer treatments.  And so you should not pay the price for normal heat ruby.

For all the GRS classification details.  You can click on the following link:

Ruby Treatment Image - Heated Ruby - Discoid fractures with tension halos
Discoid fractures with tension halos. Notice the disk like fractures with lace like outer healing rims. Photo courtesy from © AGSL
Sapphire Treatment Image - Heated Sapphire Ruby - Though this image is not a ruby, the inclusions will look the same in normal heated ruby. This image shows discoid fracture with tension halos and burned, altered mineral inclusions (in the middle) with rounded "cotton" like or "snowball" look
Though this image is not a ruby, the inclusions will look the same in normal heated ruby. This image shows discoid fracture with tension halos and burned, altered mineral inclusions (in the middle) with rounded “cotton” like or “snowball” look. Photo courtesy of © Alberto Scarani
Ruby Treatment Image - Heated Ruby - Dotted Rutile Silk and not straight intact lines proves the silk has been burned or the ruby has been heat treated.
Dotted Rutile Silk and not straight intact lines proves the silk has been burned or the ruby has been heat treated. Photo courtesy of Photo © Richard W. Hughes

Ruby Treatment Guide – Heated Flux-healed Rubies

Extreme heat treatment which induces flux like material in rubies. Is the next higher step of treating rubies. On reliable certificate providers as stated above will indicate this rubies as H(b) or below.

Treaters add this “foreign” material into the rubies. By surrounding the rubies with a flux-like material. That becomes molten at extremely high temperatures.

The dissolved flux then fills the fractures and cavities. That is open to the stone’s surface which then solidifies into a glass-like substance.

This process improves apparent clarity. But because the clarity of these materials is not completely “natural.” The price for these rubies is substantially less.

Again, this will depend on how much residue is presented in the heated rubies.  Which the labs can classify as minor, moderate or significant residues.   For each level the price will drop accordingly, in average of almost 20% to 50% per carat.

Signs to Check For Flux-Healed Rubies are Explained Below.

  • Flux inclusions are generally white and have a glue or sticky look.  But, it might also appear near-colorless, whitish, brownish, or yellow to orange.PLEASE NOTE: Even though these inclusions indicate flux induced by the heat process. There are also flux-growth synthetic rubies which are man-made stones. And NOT natural rubies. For more details please read our next post on synthetic rubies.
Glass-filled Composite Ruby - Flux Residue inclusions. Noticed the glue or sticky look
Flux Residue inclusions. Noticed the glue or sticky look — Photo courtesy of Photo © Richard W. Hughes

Ruby Treatment Guide – Lead-Glass Filled Rubies (New Treatment or Phua Mai in Thai)

The newest type of rubies which has flooded the markets recently. Are called lead-glass filled rubies, in which the average price is US$ 1 per carat or less.

These stones are not worth anything.  This is because in their natural state, the rough would have been an ugly, highly included brown color. Which would NOT have been saleable if it was not subject to this type of treatment.

How it works is usually this “bad” looking ruby.  If you can call it ruby.  Are mixed with acid to remove mineralized inclusions.  Making the stone texture soft and weak like a sponge.

If you hold the stone at this state it will crumble into powder.  This material then is infused with leaded glass to give back the strength and apparent good looks.

For an average consumer, you would think this is a beautiful natural ruby, which I am getting in a cheap price.

The problem with this type treatment is many as listed below:


These stones are not rubies anymore. It is mixture of natural corundum and lead-glass. Actually most of these “rubies” have more lead-glass in them.

Yet they are still being sold as natural rubies in major stores and/or some eBay or online dealers. Which makes this a major disclosure issue.

If the sellers actually disclose the treatments of these stones to their clients. The purchaser can then make an inform decision on how much you should pay for this type of ruby.


Due to not being purely corundum anymore.  This type of ruby if you set in jewelry without informing the setter will get ruined in a second.  If the jeweler torches the ring for resizing and it touches the stone for a second it will crack.

If you re-plate your rhodium plate white gold ring it will destroy the stone.  For natural rubies you don’t have to worry about any of the above issues.


Also, if you the wearer is not careful in wearing these “hybrid” rubies. For example, accidentally spill some lemon juice while eating fish. The stone will slowly decay in few days. And your supposedly “beautiful” stone. Will now look like it was thrown from 50 storey high rise building.

Therefore, if you are in the market buying rubies. It is very important to find out how to check for these types of rubies.

Sure Indications are Listed Below. 

  • Gas-bubbles are sure indications of glass-filled rubies or synthetics.  Usually very easy to spot under microscope or a loupe with dark light background.
  • Blue and Orange flash effect along structural fractures when put under a black light. It is also a key indication of lead-glass filled rubies

Again, the best way to find out if the stone you are buying is lead-glass filled rubies is. By either having a great pair of eyes and check for the signs above. Or getting the stone certified by a reliable lab.

GRS certificates will classify these rubies as “Hybrid”-Ruby. It will have the following comment “Heat-treated and filled with a foreign solid substance (including lead). Special care when handling.

Also known as “Composite Ruby.” A sample certificate can be seen by clicking here:

Glass-filled Composite Ruby - Gas Bubble inclusion
Gas Bubble inclusion
Glass-filled Composite Ruby - Gas Bubble seen at the right side of the stone
Gas Bubble seen at the right side of the stone — Photo courtesy from © Wimon Manorotku
Glass-filled Composite Ruby - Blue and Orange flash effect along structural fractures
Blue and Orange flash effect along structural fractures — Photo courtesy from © Barbra Votaire

I hope the above guide is helpful. If you have any additional questions. Please feel free to provide your comments below or send me a message at [email protected].
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22 thoughts on “Natural ruby buying & treatment guide – How to buy and tell the difference between natural unheated, heated, new glass filled ruby treatment?”


    Pretty nice post. I just stumbled upon your blog and wished to say that I have really enjoyed surfing around your blog posts.
    In any case I’ll be subscribing to your feed and I hope you write again very soon!

  2. Thank you for this nice elaborated explanation on the ruby. I found a natural heat treated ruby from a local jewelers store known by paramount jewelers. It has been really hard to make the decision. So the Ruby I am talking about is a natural heated Mozambique Ruby. Which has 1.78 ct and they are asking for $2200 with their own certifications. How should i approach this deal.
    Please guide me at your best possible way, your help will be really appreciated

    1. Hi MD Hoque,
      The way I will approach this deal is by first checking if paramount jewelers, who is providing the certification, has someone qualified to do so. Usually most established jewelry stores will have a graduate gemologist (from GIA preferable) in house who can verify if the ruby is natural & only heat treated. If there isn’t any qualified individual who can do this than you should ask if they can provide a third party certification just to make sure you know what ruby you are getting.
      “Heated” natural ruby is also a very broad definition and as you can see from this blog article there is different “levels” of heat treatment, which can affect the ruby price. Price from highest to lowest is 1) Normal Heat treatment 2) Heat treatment with flux residue inside the ruby 3) Heat treatment with chemically diffusion…. For each level downward, the price drops dramatically, so that is why it is important for you to understand when the certification states heat treatment to check and see “what type it is”.
      I wish you the best of luck with ruby purchase and do feel free to ask me any question anytime.
      Tarun Gupta, Graduate Gemologist (GIA)

  3. Hello,
    I am the president of the company, working and living in Cambodia. Since 2008 I have been working on Burmese rubies, have partnered with Mogok. Personally fly to purchase stones. I would like to bring to your attention rubies, sapphires, spinel only from Mogok and just not warm stones. Stones are in stock and on order.

    1. Hello, what are your prices for rough rubies and sapphire (heated only-facetable- high quality)
      per ct ?
      Do you sell from cambodia? Do you have a contact tel number?
      Will appreciate if you can gave me please give me your best initial price
      as I am now looking to start .

  4. Hmm interesting. Please also say that Ruby is a ‘sapphire’ too, it’s just a red sapphire 🙂 Most people think ‘blue’ wwhen they hear ‘sapphire’, mostly prefer very deep, dark (but clear), blue.
    Also, since the best Ruby is harder to find than comparable diamond, and very rare, also that NO WAY is average person going to get natural heat Ruby at a few full carats. They won’t be at any chain jeweler s for sure! MOST rubies that look pink more than red are Thai rubies, and always considered far less valuable than African rubies which, ideally, should ‘glow’ blood/stop-light red rather than sparkle and NEVER have a brownish hue. Else they are probably red garnet, not ruby.
    Finally, unless person with expensive Ruby gem knows jewelers very well, NEVER to leave for cleaning with ANY jeweler and jeweler should ALWAYS clean rare gems such as these by appointment, IN FRONT OF customer WITHOUT BEING ASKED!! I had a relative who a friends family member once robbed by a very good jeweler-thief like that and she never, ever got over it and it was her word against the jeweler’s because she didn’t realise till much later that something ‘seemed wrong’ and this bad jeweler was counting on such trusts and getting away with it!!!!! The natural heat rubies grow increasingly rare and expensive, so it’s important people know this.

    1. Hi Steve,
      Thanks for your comment and you are correct by stating that by definition a ruby is a ‘red’ color sapphire. They both are in the same “corundum family” and therefore have the same toughness & hardness characteristics.
      In fact, sapphires come in all colors and it just depends on their chemical composition. Color ranges include blue, pink, yellow, green, purple, etc.
      Now regarding rubies being more ‘rare’ then diamonds, I completely agree with you in that statement and searching & sourcing a nice high quality ruby is not easy. I also agree with you that high quality ruby has been a good investment due to this rarity factor.
      However, your comment regarding African rubies being ‘higher’ priced in comparison to Thai rubies actually is not true at all. Yes, Thai rubies ‘generally’ are in darkish red color range, but as there aren’t any rubies being mined or produced from here anymore since the late 1980s, they are now very rare to find. Also, the most premium source of rubies are still Burmese rubies and they actually glow the most due to them having less iron in its composition which allows it to ‘fluoresce more’ in natural sunlight. There are of course beautiful Mozambique rubies but they are still a lot more affordable in comparison to a Thai or Burmese ruby as they more easily available due large production coming from that source.
      Tarun Gupta, Graduate Gemologist (GIA)

  5. I have bout 66.0 carat ruby I can send picture but I’m confused. I have oval hand cut untreated RUBY. RED&SLIGHTLY purple w/whitish streaks in it. It’s size color & being told such a variety of values. I only know sending to Swiss gemologist that it’s a ruby, but would that gemologist give me an impartial course of action as to where, how, which, if, or any opinion AS ITS FUTURE SHOULD TAKE. Mainly appreciative on understanding this subject.

  6. i was looking for the properties of natural and heated rubies as i deal in these stones.also nowadays labs are less reliable so i want to thank you a lot for such useful information which will make me improve my knowledge about the stones.

  7. Would someone plese give me a phone number from president of the company’s in Cambodia I’m looking for natural Burmese ruby and sapphire, certified I have very bad experience from USA and India purchase 2 ruby from dishonest people state that is reall ruby and it was glass filed I was craying and not was able to return them,!
    And it as gifts to my daughters,

    1. Hi Nena,
      We only have one main office which is located in Bangkok, Thailand, though we can ship across the globe through FedEx with full insurance. Now regarding getting cheated in buying your ruby, I believe our blog does cover very important points which you should check before making your purchase to make sure you getting the genuine thing. Also, always do remember that the most important thing in buying gemstones is to make sure you dealing with someone who you can “trust” and the certificate received is from reliable third party lab.
      Best Regards,
      Tarun Gupta, Graduate Gemologist (GIA)

  8. Thank you so much for this information. I recently purchased my first ruby for my favorite seller, who always informs if the stones are treated and includes pictures of the actual product, they even have a filter to separate fracture filled and flux healed stones from only heated ones, which is amazing. Im so happy to know my new 0.16 carat heated only ruby is still real!

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