Diamond Basic 101: The Diamond’s 5Cs


Diamonds are easier to classify and buy then colored gemstones. This is due to being white in color plus having standardized 4Cs criteria.

Diamond’s 4Cs are color, clarity, cut and carat weight.

For this post, I added one more “C” as a certificate. Certificate quality is also relevant in determining how much a diamond should cost.


The standard “color range” for white diamonds is “D” through “Z”. “D” represents a diamond that is colorless. “Z” represents a diamond that has a yellow or brownish color shade.

As a rule, the closer a diamond is to colorless, the more valuable and rare it is.

Diamond's 5Cs - Color Grade - Classification of diamond colors from white to yellow (D to Z)

Color Designations:

  • D, E, F – colorless
  • G, H, I, J – near colorless
  • K, L, M – faint yellow or brown
  • N, O, P, Q, R – very light yellow or brown
  • S, T, U, V, W, X, Y, Z – light yellow or brown

White color diamonds are the most popular. Yet, there are more rare diamonds that have strong “other” color hue called fancy diamonds. The hues of these diamonds can compete with any color gemstones. These diamonds come in many different colors – red, pink, canary yellow, blue and green and are all prized.

Diamond's 5Cs - Fancy Color Range - Different colors of diamonds - fancy color diamonds like yellow, blue, red


An important aspect of the allure of diamonds is the way they sparkle. Sparkle is a result of how good the stone’s cut grade is. The cut is base on the diamond’s symmetry, polish, durability, and proportion of its parts.  Cut grade also determines how light travels through the diamond and back to your eye.

Diamond's 5Cs - Cut Grade - What is diamond's ideal cut

Well cut diamond also have brilliance and shine. This is the result of light being refracted off all the facets which then exits the table or top part of the diamond.


A diamond cut in “ideal” proportions will allow the most light to exit through its table. This results in breathtaking brilliance and shimmer.

When the diamond cut is too shallow or too deep, a significant amount of light exits through the sides and bottom of the stone. This results in a lack of brilliance and scintillation.

There are also different types of diamond cuts and shown below. The most popular is, of course, the classical round brilliant which is the “ideal” diamond cut.

Different diamond and gemstones cut shapes


Clarity indentify a diamond’s purity. It is normal for diamonds to have inclusions, small flaws, scratches or other minerals. The less inclusions a diamond has, the more valuable and beautiful it is.

The scale for grading diamond’s clarity is:

  • Flawless – These diamonds do not have any inclusions and considered to be perfect.
  • Internally Flawless – These diamonds may have very minor blemishes on the outside surface of the stone.
  • VVS1, VVS2 – These diamonds have very, very small inclusions.
  • VS1, VS2 – These diamonds have very small inclusions.
  • SI1, SI2, SI3 – These diamonds have small inclusions.
  • I1, I2, I3 – These diamonds have flaws that can be seen with the human eye.

Diamond clarity scale from flawless (IF) to included (I1) grade


Carats refer to the size of the diamond. Each carat has one hundred points. The carat weight refers to the mass of a diamond.

For example, a diamond that is a 1/2 carat referred to as a 50-point diamond.

But bigger does not always mean better.

A fair cut two-carat diamond will not be as beautiful as a smaller excellent cut diamond.

Also, a large diamond that has poor color or clarity grade will be less attractive.

Diamond's 5Cs- Carat weight Comparison - Diamond size scale base on carat weight


While a diamond can be the ultimate symbol of love. It also represents an investment in time, energy and money.

You need to feel confident in the integrity of your stone. Many consumers are now relying on a more precise document that evaluates the true value. The diamond certificate.

A diamond certificate is a report based on a gemological analysis of a specific stone. Certified gemologist from independent laboratories create these certificates.

The certificate will state your diamond’s 4Cs: color, clarity, cut, carat weight.

Certificates also provide following information: 

  • Diamond’s shape
  • Measurements
  • Table and depth percentages
  • Polish and Symmetry Grade
  • Fluoresence

Some certificates may estimate the replacement value of the stone for insurance purposes. Finally, the certificate should include a detailed sketch of the diamond.

The most premium certificates in the diamond market are GIA. That is why it is the most priced one as well.

Other certificate companies are also respected and rank the following – HRD, IGI, EGL, etc.

IGI Diamond Report Images
Also, if you are feeling lazy in reading the above post, I would recommend to watch following GIA video. Video explains the 4Cs classification:

Thai Native Gems Diamond Search & Custom Engagement Ring service:

If you are in the market looking for the best diamond and custom hand made engagement ring in Bangkok, Thailand. Contact us and let us know what your budget is and what you are looking for.

From this initial information, we will swiftly find and email you 4 to 5 center diamond options to choose from that we feel fits your needs best.  Unlike other traditional or online dealers, I am not looking to sell you anything, but will provide you honest, frank and objective opinion in what we think is best in the budget you offer.

This service is free, and there absolutely no commitment to buy any of our suggestions.  The only thing you have to do is not respond to our email and you won’t hear from us again! So, you truly have nothing to lose!

How do we compile this diamond list?  Our search process is provided below:

1) We first will contact our local diamond supply network and check if there are any stones that fits your requirement in Bangkok, Thailand.  We have over 50 contacts in Bangkok and will check ALL to make sure we can provide you the best deal.

2) If not satisfied, we will then check online through our extensive global network sifting through over 900,000+ diamonds and will find you the best diamond.  The only setback when choosing the diamond from this global list is, it can take one to two weeks to arrive to Bangkok.

What type engagement rings can you make and how are they made?

1) We usually set our engagement rings in 18k yellow or white gold or 950 platinum settings.  Our rings are all hand-crafted and made by highly skilled Thai craftsmen.

Examples in some of the rings we made you can see on our YouTube channel and shown below:

YouTube Channel PLAY LIST

Contact us today to get all your wholesale gemstones, diamonds and jewelry needs.  We can Source, Search and Supply anything you require.

What will you get if you contact us

  • Start a conversation with us at FB.com/ThaiNativeGems/
  • Get wholesale and highly competitive prices of gemstones & diamonds from anywhere through our extensive network of contacts around the world
  • All stones sold by us is verified in house by our GIA Graduate Gemologist or certified
  • We provide personalized service and NOT the same old “One Size Fits All” Approach

You can learn more by clicking here or image below

5 thoughts on “Diamond Basic 101: The Diamond’s 5Cs”

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